Permanent magnet drive motor industry development and market trend, the advantages and disadvantages of permanent magnet motor analysis

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Developed countries dominate the high-end market

With the rapid development of information technology in the global economy, countries have entered the technological and popularization stages of industrial automation, office automation, family modernization, agricultural modernization and military weapons and equipment modernization. As an important basic component in these technologies and systems, the demand for permanent magnet motor is increasing, the market space is expanding year by year, and the development momentum is good.

In the continuous development of the global permanent magnet motor industry, Japan, Germany, the United States, The United Kingdom, Switzerland, Sweden and other countries famous brand companies with its decades of permanent magnet motor manufacturing experience and key technology, control most of the high-end, precision, new permanent magnet motor technology and products.

Belt driven power generator on the modern car engine

Japan in permanent magnet motor, for example, high efficiency, mute, high performance processing for industrial servo with permanent magnet motor is a lot of research and development work on aspects, thus have great advantage on technology, production of micro-motor equipment has high control accuracy, low power consumption, long life and low cost competitive advantage, such as small size and technical ranks also walk in the forefront of the world, Occupied the world’s high-end permanent magnet motor market.

At present, Japan’s main permanent magnet motor manufacturers have Japan Electric Corporation, Japan ASMO Corporation, Japan Denso Corporation, Japan Wanbao motor Corporation and so on.

Electric motors were developed later in the United States than in Japan. In the United States, induction motor design and control strategy development is more mature, so the electric vehicle drive motor is mainly induction motor. However, the United States has also carried out research on permanent magnet synchronous motor, and rapid progress, such as the permanent magnet synchronous motor developed by SatCon company adopts stator double-set winding technology, which not only expands the speed range of the motor, but also effectively uses the voltage of the inverter, the winding current is low, and the motor efficiency is high. At present, the main manufacturers in the U.S. permanent magnet motor market are Gettys, a-b, I.D, Odawara Automarion and Magtrol, etc.

However, the permanent magnet motor industry mainly focuses on military micro-motor, U.S. military micro-motor is a world leader of scientific research and product level, western military equipment and electronic devices used in all kinds of micro-motor by several major U.S. manufacturers supply, micro-motor American standard has become the international standard.

In addition to the United States, Japan, Switzerland ABB, Switzerland Reynaud Group, Germany Xiao Chi company and other companies also have strong competitiveness, occupy a larger share of the global market.

In addition, due to the gradual transfer of technology diffusion to developing countries, emerging countries represented by China also occupy an important position in the global field of permanent magnet motor. According to the statistics of The Motor Industry Association, in 2017, the output of permanent magnet motors in China broke through 10 million kW for the first time, reaching 11.071 million kW, becoming the main producer of permanent magnet motors in the world.

Motor permanent magnetization will continue

First of all, permanent magnet motor has the advantages of high efficiency, large specific power, high power factor, high reliability and easy maintenance. The variable frequency speed regulation system using vector control can make the permanent magnet motor have a wide speed regulation range. Therefore, permanent magnetization of motor has become one of the important development directions of motor drive technology.

Especially in the electric car motor drive technology is limited by space vehicles and use of environmental constraints, the electric car with the motor drive system is different from the ordinary electric drive system, it requires higher performance, higher volume/weight density, the environment temperature is higher, for ordinary motor driven power electronics and motor technology already can not adapt to the requirements. Therefore, permanent magnetization will become one of the development directions of automobile motor in the future. According to the statistics of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, in December 2018, China’s new energy passenger vehicles were equipped with more than 160,000 motors, among which permanent magnet synchronous motors accounted for 92.3%.

Secondly, with the improvement of the performance of permanent magnet materials, the improvement of processing technology and the development of modern control technology, permanent magnet motor in industrial and agricultural production, household appliances, medical equipment, aerospace, navigation, military and other fields of application will be more in-depth, and show a strong vitality.

Finally, with the increasing awareness of power saving and environmental protection, permanent magnet motors used in the field of energy saving and environmental protection will grow substantially. It can be predicted that the arrival of low-carbon economy will bring growth opportunities for permanent magnet motor, and ultra-efficient permanent magnet motor and speed regulating efficient permanent magnet motor will play a significant role in energy conservation and emission reduction.

Analysis of advantages and disadvantages of permanent magnet motor

In recent years, the use of permanent magnet motor is more and more people, why do we have to choose permanent magnet motor? Because permanent magnet motor is a lot of advantages, so we choose it. What are the specific advantages, and then give you a brief talk about the advantages of permanent magnet motor?

1. Medium and low speed power generation performance is good

Under the condition of the same power level, the output power of the permanent magnet generator is twice as high as that of the excitation generator at idle speed, that is to say, the excitation generator with the actual power level of the permanent magnet generator.

2. Simple structure and high reliability

Permanent magnet generator eliminates the excitation winding, carbon brush, slip ring structure of the excitation generator, the whole machine structure is simple, avoid the excitation winding of the excitation generator is easy to burn, break, carbon brush, slip ring wear and other faults, reliability is greatly improved.

3. Significantly prolong battery life and reduce battery maintenance

The main reason is that the permanent magnet generator adopts the switching rectifier voltage regulation mode, high voltage regulation accuracy, good charging effect. It avoids the shortening of battery life caused by overcurrent charging. The leading rectifier output of the permanent magnet generator uses small current pulse to charge the battery. The same charging current has better charging effect, so as to prolong the service life of the battery.

4. Small size, light weight, large specific power

The use of permanent magnet rotor structure makes the internal structure of the generator arranged very compact, and the volume and weight are greatly reduced. The simplification of the structure of permanent magnet rotor also reduces the moment of inertia of rotor, increases the practical speed, and reaches a high value of specific power (that is, the ratio of power to volume).

5. Use self-starting voltage regulator

No additional excitation power supply is required. A generator generates electricity by rotating it. When the battery is damaged, the car charging system can work normally as long as the engine is running. If the car does not have a battery, as long as you shake the handle or slip the car, it can also achieve ignition operation.

6. High efficiency

Permanent magnet generator is an energy-saving product. The structure of permanent magnet rotor avoids the excitation power needed to generate rotor magnetic field and the mechanical loss of friction between carbon brush and slip ring, which greatly improves the efficiency of permanent magnet generator. The average efficiency of a conventional excited generator is only 45% to 55% over a range of speeds between 1500 RPM and 6000 RPM, while that of a permanent magnet generator can be as high as 75% to 80%.

7. No radio interference

The structure of permanent magnet generator without carbon brush and slip ring eliminates radio interference caused by friction between carbon brush and slip ring. Eliminate electric spark, especially suitable for explosive danger degree of the environment, but also reduce the environmental temperature requirements of the generator.

8. It is especially suitable for working in humid or dusty harsh environment.

It is because permanent magnet motor has the advantages of the above eight points, so we will choose permanent magnet motor to use. Of course, everything is not perfect, the above is introduced about the advantages of permanent magnet motor, everything has its own advantages and disadvantages, permanent magnet motor is no exception, it not only has so many advantages, but also has a small part of its shortcomings.

If the permanent magnet motor is not used properly, when operating at too high or too low temperature, under the action of armature reaction caused by shock current, or under severe mechanical vibration. It is possible to produce irreversible demagnetization, so that the performance of the motor is degraded, or even unusable. Therefore, special attention should be paid when using permanent magnet motors.

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Post time: Mar-03-2022